PCB Fabrication Methods

30 March, 2015 (10:47) | Electronics | By: Kristina Chung

A printed circuit board or PCB is used as a mechanical support to electrical connections of electronic components using a conductive pathway. It is also useful in tracking the traces made by etching from copper sheets that are laminated to a non-conductive substrate. A PCB is essential since it adds support and stability to prototyped circuit boards.

There are many methods used in PCB Fabrication. These methods are classified into chemical and non-chemical ones. The chemical method is widely used by people, as it is much easier to perform.

Two common chemical methods used in PCB fabrication are the Toner Transfer Method and the Sticker Method. Here are the steps for each chemical method.

METHOD 1: Toner Transfer Method

The Toner Transfer Method is the most commonly used at home, as it is well tested by PCB makers. It only requires less expense and fewer materials.

In doing a PCB fabrication using this method, you will need the following materials:

- Single sided copper clad sheet

- A laser printout of the circuit (You just need to print out the track, pads and vias.)

– Flat iron

– Sandpaper

– Permanent marker

– Gloves and mask

- Etching solution. (You can use HCl+H2O2 or FeCl3+HCl solutions.)

– PCB drilling machine

Steps:

pcbnet1. Estimate the size of the PCB from the size of the circuit in the printout.

2. Once the size has already been obtained, cut the required size of the PCB.

3. Using sandpaper, remove all the dirt and rust accumulated in the board.

4. Wrap the printout of the circuit to the PCB in a way that the shiny copper part of the board overlaps the printed circuit.

5. Get a flat iron and set its heat to maximum. Once done, sprinkle some water to the paper-wrapped board and press the iron onto the wrapped PCB board for 3 to 5 minutes.

6. Allow the board to cool down for 10 to 15 minutes. After cooling, peel off the paper wrap.

7. If you find it difficult to remove the paper from the board, then you can use some water and dab it into the surface of the board. Do this carefully to prevent the PCB ink from coming off from the board.

8. Carefully trace the lines of the circuit using a permanent marker.

9. Prepare your etching solution by mixing it in a 3:1 ratio.

10. Drop the PCB board into the solution and let it soak until all the bubbling has stopped.

11. Using sandpaper, remove the ink from the PCB. Continue to scratch the board until the surface becomes shiny.

12. Finally, drill the holes in the circuit.

This is a very easy method and most hobbyists use this in doing PCBs right in the comfort of their homes.

METHOD 2: Sticker Method

This PCB fabrication method is proven effective and simple. However, you will be needing a sticker cutting machine for this method.

The materials needed in this method are as follows:

– Auto-CAD software

– Sticker cutting machine

– Sticker

– Single or double sided copper clad sheet

– Etching solution

– Gloves and mask

– PCB drilling machine

Steps:

1. Using the software, draw your preferred design of the circuit. Once done, you can print it out in a sticker. Make sure that the dimensions are accurate before printing.

2. Apply the sticker onto your board. Make sure to clean the board using sandpaper.

3. Drop the board into the etching solution and let it soak for 10 to 15 minutes until the bubbling has stopped.

4. Once done, drill the holes for the circuit.

These are just some of the many PCB fabrication methods that you can use in making your own printed circuit boards.

www.pcbnet.com  involves a lot of steps, depending on the type of PCB and its intended end use. One of these steps is etching, among several others.

Military Custom Challenge Coins

23 January, 2015 (12:31) | Military | By: Janet Richmond

There are four main types of custom challenge coins offered today worldwide. These are Military, Police, Fire Department and Corporate Custom Challenge coins. But did we ever know the purpose of having a challenge coin? How about its use? Do we really have an idea as to how it is being used and its importance?

Custom Challenge coin were introduced by the military long way before to recognize bravery and camaraderie among members. Today there are many uses and purposes that these coins hold. It is being used by the different organizations, military, arm forces and even sports. Each of these organizations serves its own purpose why they needed to have custom challenge coins.

military coinsMilitary custom challenge coin is the most popular of all the custom challenge coins available on www.challengecoins4less.com. Members of the US Armed Forces have a long-stand of carrying these coins which symbolizes unit identity and brotherhood. Each coin bears the unique unit symbols, slogans and/or text that identify the group they represent. These coins are often traded, collected and presented among unit members. It instills the very essence of being a member of a military group and it is of great pride to carry them around. Before challenge coins were just simple die-struck brass coin with a faint emblem and barely discernible text. Today military custom challenge coin evolved and contain a more developed, colorful and complex designs.

This is due to the advancement of technology we already have today. It is even manufactured in fashion that allows the bearer to see the 3D image display the coin consists. One can develop the designs of the custom challenge coins through the internet and allows them to edit and perfect the design which satisfies the customers’ desire. Some of the popular features military custom challenge coin were made over the years includes sequential numbering which makes it unique and a must have collection, a specialty edging and photographic inserts which allows and affixes the actual picture to one or both sides of the coin.

Most new military agencies cover the presentation of custom challenge coins by high ranking officials to war heroes upon their return from duty. This helps the awareness to create an increasing popularity of these coins beyond the military services as well. The widely known custom challenge coin are the “Bull Dog” challenge coin. It represents the attributes of strength and courage each tail gunner’s show during their duty. However these coins became rear as time pass.Law enforcements and firefighter organizations also followed the military tradition of handling custom challenge coin to their members and staff in recognition and achievement purposes.

This is due to the awareness and recognition that even a small, personalized coin can build unity among teams and promotes morale along the way. This is the challenge that these military agencies have to take. These custom challenge coin plays a vital, significant role in these agencies not just in the US but worldwide. It has been said then that only those who have served and received the coin for recognition and achievement are the only individuals who truly appreciates the meaning of having them.

Today there are many revision and styles of military coins. Some of these are the Death Spade Card Challenge Coin, Army Staff Sergeant, Army Sergeant, Black Ops Coin, USMC Sergeant Challenge Coins, USMC Staff Sergeant Challenge Coins, Air Force Master Sergeant Challenge Coin, US Navy Engraved Coin, US Marine Corps Coin and a lot more. Depending on the purpose each coin each has its own importance. These were made by talented graphic artists with military backgrounds to ensure the exactness of the details.

West Meets East

20 January, 2015 (11:42) | Real Estate | By: George Maxwell

It is not common that a single place speaks of rich history, magical beauty and yet, delightful simplicity. In our world today, it seems that there is always a need to industrialize every piece of land that people can get hold of. And more often than not, industrialization, little by little, robs a place of its inner beauty and splendour. But it seems that Suffolk County strongly disagrees.

Real EstateSuffolk County is just a part of the expansive Long Island real estate located on the eastern part of the island. A lot of famous people come to Suffolk County to escape the hustle and the bustle of the city. Some of them even bought their vacation homes here as a place for stress relief and relaxation. Suffolk County, in this light, can be considered as an epitome of serenity and pure innocent joy that one experiences in a rural area.

This could be any busy and stressed person’s dream- the place where one can bask in the sun and where one can happily spend early mornings reading his newspaper at a leisurely pace while drinking a cup of coffee in the porch without the worries of work deadlines.

More people from Nassau County keep coming in as the MLSLI or Multiple Listing Service of Long Island, Inc. reported. More affordable housing choices are being offered while the home sales in Hamptons has risen by 7%. In Suffolk County, there has been a decline in median home price since May 2011 in condo units. This is in contrast to the median home price list of single/multi-family units’ median price which has increased in 2013 after somewhat suffering a drop in 2012.

In total, the median price increased from $302,500 of last year to $315,000 this year, reflecting a modest 4.1% increase. Constructions for community improvements, especially in Patchogue, have already started that is projected to generate more income for the island.

Just along the North Shore is the Gold Coast, where the wealthy families used to reside. If Europe has Spain to produce its delicious wines, America has Suffolk County. With a thousand acres for wineries and vineyards, one can never doubt that Suffolk County is one of the premier producers of some of the best wines in the world.

Culture and heritage are mirrored in every corner of the land as there are numerous museums, and parks that show everyone its magnificence. In spite of the industrialization and capitalism in modern times, the county folks were able to preserve its lands for farming and its waters for fishing.

It is comforting to know that amidst all of the noise and the pressure in the city, there is a place called Suffolk County where people can take refuge in. It is amusing to know that even if this place is a part of a much larger and busy state, it retains its ingenuity and stays unscathed in all its glory. It is a place that cherishes you in its bosom. It is indeed a paradise.

Author Bio:

Aside from the fact that Long Island real estate can be purchased at record low,you will also get a lot of benefits if you live there and have a family.

Portable Storage Containers: What You Should Know

19 January, 2015 (12:55) | Logistics | By: Neal Lawrence

If you have made the choice of moving with portable storage containers, there are a few basic details you need to provide to the moving storage company before anything else. First of all, specify when and where you are moving to. Before booking, you must have a definite moving date. The points of location from where you are moving from to where the new area will be must also be specified. Keep in mind that the pricing and availability of portable storage containers is seasonal as the demand may change during a specific time of the year.

portable storage containerAnother basic query upon ordering is the number of moveable containers one will rent. There is no minimum or maximum number of containers needed when availing the services of most moving storage companies. There are also different sizes of containers to choose from depending on one’s storage needs. Container sizes differ among moving storage companies.

Storage is also an important specification when ordering a moveable cubicle. Placement of the container may either be done at one’s home for the convenience of having easy access to it or may also be done in storage centers provided by the storage company. Determining the best option for the following basic information helps one save time and money when making a reservation. It also allows one to modify the moving process to fit one’s needs.

When using portable storage containers, many still are baffled or are quite unsure about specific details pertaining to their use. Discussed here are a few of the basic things one ought to know about these movable containers. For those wondering what material these storage containers are made of, the answer would depend on the moving company chosen. Although often times made of steel, there are also some companies with storage containers made from construction-grade wood, aluminum or heavy-duty plastic.

To ensure security of the belongings contained inside, these storage containers come with locks. A key may either be provided by the moving company or a personal lock may be used if no key is provided. If you are pondering on whether the stored contents are insured, one’s homeowner-insurance policy usually includes it in its scope. Any item stored within the premises of one’s household, whether in a container or while in transit to another location, is still included in the insurance.

Double-checking with one’s insurance agent about this matter would do well to bring enlightenment regarding this matter. On the other hand, if the storage container is to be stacked in the moving storage company’s storage center, the company would usually offer a contents insurance policy through a third-party provider to ensure that one’s belongings are covered while in storage.

One must also be informed that once the portable storage container has been dropped off and situated in its designated place, say in the front yard, the container cannot anymore be moved or transferred to another location in the house. These containers, although possess wheels, are locked into place by the moving storage company. For this reason, it is important to give specific instructions on exactly where you want it especially when you are not home at the time the delivery is made.

And lastly, it is important for people renting portable storage containers to be informed that there are certain objects not allowed to be stored inside them. Some of these objects include live animals or plants, flammable or corrosive materials, unpreserved fresh or frozen food, and more. Storage companies usually have their own list of materials not allowed to be stored in the containers.

Prior to being in transition with the moving process, equipping yourself with enough knowledge on portable storage containers will surely come in handy. Not only will it save you from unnecessary stress, but will also ease your doubts and worries about moving with these storage containers.

How to Customize Neck Lanyards

19 January, 2015 (09:55) | Product | By: Jean Brown

Neck lanyards that are custom printed are an awesome way to enhance the visual appeal of your customized ID badges. This type of lanyard allows you to bring out your artistic side. You have the power to make these clothing accessories look exactly the way you want them. As soon as you contact a reliable supplier, you have the chance to give your particulars when it comes to the design of the items. You can choose the color of the straps and even the materials to use. For a reliable supplier you can contact www.wholesalelanyards.com.

Aside from the fact that these lanyards help you look stylish, they also enhance your security with their top safety features. As soon as you wear a custom neck lanyard, you also discourage any unauthorized person from entering your premises, perhaps your office or your workplace. In addition, you can make use of these items on events that require purchasing of tickets before anyone is allowed to enter the venue. In order for you to find the best neck lanyard, it is essential that you are familiar with the different options available in the market today. In this essence, a good market research will be very beneficial on your part.

Neck lanyardsWhen looking for a lanyard supplier, it is highly essential that you consider their reputation. There are some suppliers on the Internet who only want your money and give you poor quality items. For this reason, it is advisable that you do enough research on the different suppliers and products online.

The first step in customizing your neck lanyard is to figure out your desired color. Black is the standard color that manufacturers use in making neck lanyards. However, you can choose from the wide variety of colors available. Perhaps you can ask the manufacturer to make your lanyard with your favorite color. You can even request a neck lanyard with a couple of colors. You can also choose color in consideration with your company or team color.

When it comes to the materials you wish your neck lanyards to be made of, there are also a lot of choices. Most of the commonly used material these days is nylon. This is truly popular among consumers because of its unrivalled appeal and durability. However, there are also lanyards that are made of beads, leather, and plastic and there are even metal lanyards. If you want to achieve a unique sense of style, then you can go with the retractable type lanyards.

The final stage of customizing neck lanyards involves the print design. You can personalize your lanyard by giving your specifications to your supplier. One of the most common custom printed lanyards include the initials of the wearer. If you want to want your lanyard to be really unique, then you can ask your supplier to print your full name on it. You can even add your own words or even an image, or the logo of your club, organization or company. You can also put the slogan of your company or even the theme of the event you are attending. However, you have to be brief with the imprint you want as you only have a limited space on the cord. You can choose the font and the font color to use. You have to consider the background color of your neck lanyard when choosing the font color. Remember that you want the imprint to be easily readable.

Neck lanyards are truly an awesome way to show your artistic side. Not only does it complement your custom badges, but more importantly it also contributes to your security. In addition, these accessories are considerably cost effective despite the fact that they offer a lot of benefits particularly when it comes to style, convenience, and security.